This article shows you the step by step method on how to make beautiful gemstones. At the end of this post, you will learn all you need to make exquisite gemstones.
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What are gemstones and how do they form?
A gemstone is a mineral crystal that has been cut and polished for use in the creation of jewelry and other adornments. However, some minerals (such as lapis lazuli and opal) and sometimes biological materials (such as amber, jet, and pearl) are also used in jewellery and are therefore often termed gemstones.
While the majority of gemstones are hard, certain soft minerals are utilized in jewellery due to their brilliance or other aesthetic features.
Other aspects that contribute to the value of diamonds include their rarity and reputation.
The majority of diamonds are formed naturally inside the Earth as minerals. The majority crystallize into solids with their atoms organized in highly ordered repeated units called crystal systems.
For hundreds of years, man has fashioned gemstones in an age-old effort to enhance the innate beauty and mystery of nature’s riches.
Gemstones are a natural wonder and are enchanted in their own right.
Their ultimate promise, however, is achieved via man’s touch, the cutting that unleashes the stone’s interior fire and produces the hypnotic scintillation that makes a diamond so alluring to the human sight.
Color, clarity, cut, and peculiar optical phenomena inside the stone such as color zoning) and asteria are the physical attributes that contribute to a gem stone’s value (star effects).
Gemstones are classified according to their chemical composition, species, and variants.
For instance, ruby is the red variant of the corundum species, but sapphire is any other hue of corundum.
Other kinds of beryl include emerald (green), aquamarine (blue), red beryl (red), goshenite (colorless), heliodor (yellow), and morganite (pink).
The refractive index, dispersion, specific gravity, hardness, cleavage, fracture, and luster of gemstones are the unique properties that make each stone unique.
They may show pleochroism or display double refraction. They may emit light and have a specific absorption spectrum.
Also, a gemstone may include material or defects such as inclusions. Gemstones may be categorized according to their “water”.
This is a widely accepted method of rating a gem’s shine, transparency, or “brilliance.” The most transparent diamonds are referred to as “first water,” while those with a lower clarity are referred to as “second water” or “third water”.
How to create beautiful gemstones
Gemstones are visually appealing minerals that are often crystalline.
Natural gemstones are mined, however many of them may be grown artificially in a laboratory.
Several of the crystals are imitation gems, which means they resemble genuine gems but lack their chemical makeup and qualities.
Others are synthetic gems, which are composed identically to genuine gemstones but are grown rather than mined.
This article will walk you through the process of creating beautiful gemstones, beginning with the rough crystal.
The Rough Crystal: The Genesis of Beautiful Gemstones
The rough crystal is the starting point for the creation of beautiful gemstones.
Crystals come in a variety of shapes and sizes. While some remain in their “crystal habit” (the natural state in which a particular gem originates), others have been fractured during the mining process or by nature’s twisting of the rock in which they developed.
Others are alluvial and resemble water-worn pebbles.
Less expensive gems that are created in large quantities and in lesser sizes are often cut as calibrations or standard sizes.
The primary criterion with these cuts is uniformity of size, an 8 x 6 oval, for example.
However, when it comes to exquisite, rare gemstones, the form of the rough often influences the shape of the completed piece, rather than any reference to a typical size.
This is because beautiful gemstones are very uncommon and costly, and as a cutter, you will want to maximize the output from each piece of rough in order to reduce weight loss because weight equals money.
Thus, a short stubby crystal may benefit from a circular cut, but a long tourmaline pencil would almost surely benefit from an emerald cut since this form results in the least loss.
The cutter’s perennial task is to strike a balance between the requirement to preserve weight and the significance of appropriate proportions in order to maximize light return.
Stones cut just for weight retention without regard for symmetry, beauty, or brightness are not regarded as top grade, and a poor cut might spoil an otherwise excellent piece of rough.
Planning the Cut
This is a critical stage. You must evaluate the contour of the rough and its inclusions.
After determining the overall shape, you must select how the cut will be oriented.
Numerous factors are considered here; any undesirable inclusions must be eliminated, color banding and zoning, if present, may impact the table’s orientation as well as the piece’s real shape.
Once the piece has been carefully evaluated, the cleaning procedure may begin.
Certain stones need slicing, which requires the use of a specialized machine.
Areas that are not otherwise included are ground off with a unique lap.
Pre-shaping & Dopping
Following the cut’s planning, the following stage is preshaping, which requires talent.
It is accomplished “freehand,” which means that you will need to grasp the rough stone and grind it with a spinning wheel called a “lap” prepared with diamond powder.
This will result in the cut’s simplest form.
The pre-shaped rough piece must now be fastened to a specific metal rod known as a dop.
This is accomplished with a special dopping wax.
Following that, the dopped rod is attached to a handheld faceter.
Faceting is the process of transforming fine rough into a sparkling polished gemstone.
This is a highly skilled operation in which a cutter meticulously puts a number of facets (or faces) on the table and pavilion of a gemstone.
This is where the true magic occurs.
On the table and pavilion of the pre-shaped rough, hundreds of small faces or “facets” are put.
This is a very skilled and specialized skill that takes years to master.
If you are able to master this ability, you will become a rare breed.
Transparent gems are often faceted, which highlights the stone’s optical qualities by maximizing reflected light, which the observer perceives as glitter.
There are several shapes that are often utilized for faceted stones.
The facets must always be cut at the correct angles, which vary according to the gem’s optical qualities.
If the angles are too steep or too shallow, light passes through and is not reflected back toward the user.
The faceting machine is used to secure the stone to a flat surface in order to cut and polish the flat facets.
The grinding lap is lifted from the machine and replaced with a faceting lap, which is a considerably finer lap that has been prepared with extremely fine diamond powder.
The facets are positioned at highly accurate angles on the stone.
The timing and dexterity required here are astounding.
Utilizing the Height, Angle, Index triangle, an individual facet is placed on the crown and pavilion using the hand held faceter.
The height of each facet determines the depth to which it is cut, the angle determines the plane on which the facets are cut, and the index determines how the facets are placed around the shape.
The crown and pavilion are fundamentally shaped like lenses and reflectors.
They collect and concentrate light before reflecting it back to the eye.
The crown facets act as a lens, collecting light from all directions and concentrating it on the pavilion, which acts as a reflector, bouncing light around within the stone and then back up to the eye through the crown.
However, not all gemstones are angled the same way. Distinct minerals demand different cutting techniques, and a cutter must be aware of these differences.
This is because each gem has a unique critical angle.
To clarify, the angles employed for each facet indicate the desired outcome, since they determine the brightness and reflection of a gemstone.
Angles of each facet must be altered to optimize optical performance.
The angles employed will change according to the Refractive Index of the gemstone, which varies for each stone.
Thus, when light flows through a gem and strikes a polished facet, the critical angle is the smallest angle at which the facet may reflect the light back into the gem.
If the pavilion of a gemstone is cut too deeply or too shallowly, the light ray will strike the facet at an angle greater than the critical angle, allowing the light to escape through the stone.
This is referred to as unintentional light leaking.
This is the last step in the process of creating exquisite gems.
To complete the task, you will need a special polishing lap that is much finer than the faceting lap.
Additionally, it is primed with ultrafine diamond powder.
Each facet is then polished to a high gloss, imparting a beautiful luster to the stone.
To get a lovely gemstone, you must complete each step with intuition and dexterity, resulting in a symmetrical, sparkling, and lovely final item.
It takes several years to develop a high degree of expertise in this discipline, and very competent cutters are regarded in the profession for their ability to see how a piece of rough might be converted into something of great beauty while juggling a slew of concerns and obstacles along the way.
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When you see a gemstone that has been expertly cut in a piece of jewelry, its splendor can be mesmerizing.
However, the sheer talent and risk inherent in cutting rare gems are seldom acknowledged.
Cutting rare gemstones such as tanzanite may be a dangerous business. However, with the correct tool, patience, and skill, you, too, can create a stunning gemstone that you can proudly display to your friends and loved ones.